Tag Archives: Pneumonia

Factors Associated With Pneumonia Severity in Children: A Systematic Review

Published: 30 May 2018

Community-acquired pneumonia in children is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, data are limited in predicting which children will have negative outcomes, including clinical deterioration, severe disease, or development of complications. The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (PIDS/IDSA) pediatric pneumonia guideline includes criteria that were modified from adult criteria and define pneumonia severity to assist with resource allocation and site-of-care decision-making. However, the PIDS/IDSA criteria have not been formally developed or validated in children. Definitions for mild, moderate, and severe pneumonia also vary across the literature, further complicating the development of standardized severity criteria. This systematic review summarizes (1) the current state of the evidence for defining and predicting pneumonia severity in children as well as (2) emerging evidence focused on risk stratification of children with pneumonia.

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Macrolides in Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Panacea or Placebo? Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

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Abstract

Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting “atypical” pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious. Considering the potential for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of macrolides, our understanding of the role of these drugs in acute and chronic infections and in inflammatory conditions is changing. Some observational data have revealed improved outcomes in adults and children with pneumonia who are prescribed macrolides, although its widespread use has led to increases in macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and M pneumoniae. Clinical trials to define the role of macrolides in pediatric acute respiratory infection must be prioritized.

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