Background Unscheduled visits to emergency departments (ED) have increased in the UK in recent years. Children who are repeat attenders are relatively understudied.
Aims To describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of preschoolers who attend ED a large District General Hospital.
Method/study design Observational study analysing routinely collected ED operational data. Children attending four or more visits per year were considered as ‘frequent attenders’. Poisson regression was used with demographic details (age, sex, ethnicity, sociodemographic status) to predict number of attendances seen in the year. We further analysed detailed diagnostic characteristics of a random sample of 10% of attendees.
Main findings 10 169 patients visited in the 12-month period with 16 603 attendances. 655 individuals attended on 3335 occasions. 6.4% of this population accounted for 20.1% of total visits. In the 10% sample, there were 304 attendances, and 69 (23%) had an underlying chronic long-standing illness (CLSI). This group were 2.4 times more likely to be admitted as inpatients compared with those without such conditions, median length of stay of 6.2 hours versus 2.5 hours (p=NS).
Conclusions Frequent ED attenders fall broadly into two distinct clinical groups: those who habitually return with self-limiting conditions and those with or without exacerbation of underlying CLSI. Both groups may be amenable to both additional nursing and other forms of community support to enhance self-care and continuity of care. Further research is required to increase our understanding of specific individual family and health system factors that predict repeat attendance in this age group.
To systematically review and synthesize literature on the relationship between health literacy and health behaviors in adolescents.
Searches in PsychInfo, PUBMED/MEDLINE, and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) were conducted. Studies were included if they reported original data on the relationship between health literacy and a health behavior in adolescents, were written in English, and the population did not have a chronic illness or disability.
Seventeen studies met inclusionary criteria. Definition and measurement of health literacy, and theoretical frameworks varied across studies. Studies investigated the relationship between functional and media health literacy and adolescent health behaviors, thirteen reported significant, linear relationships.
The results suggest that there is a meaningful relationship between health literacy and adolescents’ health behaviors. To fully understand the role of health literacy in adolescents’ health decision-making, future research should use comprehensive definitions and measures of health literacy, and integrate health behavior and adolescent development theoretical frameworks in study design.
This guideline covers recognising and diagnosing autism spectrum disorder in children and young people from birth up to 19 years. It also covers referral. It aims to improve the experience of children, young people and those who care for them.
In December 2017, we reviewed the evidence and added ADHD as a factor associated with an increased prevalence of autism and changed references from DSM-4 to DSM-5.
Setting Recruitment through neurodisability teams; treatment by parents.
Participants Ninety children with neurodisability who had never received medication for drooling (55 boys, 35 girls; median age 4 years). Exclusion criteria: medication contraindicated; in a trial that could affect drooling or management.
Intervention Children were randomised to receive a hyoscine skin patch or glycopyrronium liquid. Dose was increased over 4 weeks to achieve optimum symptom control with minimal side-effects; steady dose then continued to 12 weeks.
Primary and secondary outcomes Primary outcome: Drooling Impact Scale (DIS) score at week-4. Secondary outcomes: change in DIS scores over 12 weeks, Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication; adverse events; children’s perception about treatment.
Results Both medications yielded clinically and statistically significant reductions in mean DIS at week-4 (25.0 (SD 22.2) for hyoscine and 26.6 (SD 16) for glycopyrronium). There was no significant difference in change in DIS scores between treatment groups. By week-12, 26/47 (55%) children starting treatment were receiving hyoscine compared with 31/38 (82%) on glycopyrronium. There was a 42% increased chance of being on treatment at week-12 for children randomised to glycopyrronium relative to hyoscine (1.42, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.95).
Conclusions Hyoscine and glycopyrronium are clinically effective in treating drooling in children with neurodisability. Hyoscine produced more problematic side effects leading to a greater chance of treatment cessation.