Treatment of obesity, with a dietary component, and eating disorder risk in children and adolescents: A systematic review with meta‐analysis

Young_and_Fat_(5350627034) wikimedia commons
Image: Wikimedia Commons

Jebeile, H, Gow, ML, Baur, LA, Garnett, SP, Paxton, SJ, Lister, NB.  Obesity Reviews. 2019; 1– 12.

Summary

This review aimed to investigate the impact of obesity treatment, with a dietary component, on eating disorder (ED) prevalence, ED risk, and related symptoms in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. Four databases were searched to identify pediatric obesity treatment interventions, with a dietary component, and validated pre‐post intervention assessment of related outcomes. Of 3078 articles screened, 36 met inclusion criteria, with a combined sample of 2589 participants aged 7.8 to 16.9 years. Intervention duration ranged from 1 week to 13 months, with follow‐up of 6 months to 6 years from baseline. Prevalence of ED was reported in five studies and was reduced post‐intervention. Meta‐analyses showed a reduction in bulimic symptoms (eight studies, standardized mean difference [SE], −0.326 [0.09], P < 0.001), emotional eating (six studies, −0.149 [0.06], P = 0.008), binge eating (three studies, −0.588 [0.10], P < 0.001), and drive for thinness (three studies, −0.167 [0.06], P = 0.005) post‐intervention. At follow‐up, a reduction in ED risk (six studies, −0.313 [0.13], P = 0.012), emotional eating (five studies, −0.259 [0.05], P < 0.001), eating concern (three studies, −0.501 [0.06], P < 0.001), and drive for thinness (two studies, −0.375 [0.07], P < 0.001) was found. Structured and professionally run obesity treatment was associated with reduced ED prevalence, ED risk, and symptoms.

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Low-Value Diagnostic Imaging Use in the Pediatric Emergency Department in the United States and Canada

JAMA Pediatr. Published online June 3

Importance

Diagnostic imaging overuse in children evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) is a potential target for reducing low-value care. Variation in practice patterns across Canada and the United States stemming from organization of care, payment structures, and medicolegal environments may lead to differences in imaging overuse between countries.

Objective

To compare overall and low-value use of diagnostic imaging across pediatric ED visits in Ontario, Canada, and the United States.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This study used administrative health databases from 4 pediatric EDs in Ontario and 26 in the United States in calendar years 2006 through 2016. Individuals 18 years and younger who were discharged from the ED, including after visits for diagnoses in which imaging is not routinely recommended (eg, asthma, bronchiolitis, abdominal pain, constipation, concussion, febrile convulsion, seizure, and headache) were included. Data analysis occurred from April 2018 to October 2018.

Exposures  Diagnostic imaging use.

Main Outcome and Measures

Overall and condition-specific low-value imaging use. Three-day and 7-day rates of hospital admission and those admissions resulting in intensive care, surgery, or in-hospital mortality were assessed as balancing measures.

Results

A total of 1 783 752 visits in Ontario and 21 807 332 visits in the United States were analyzed. Compared with visits in the United States, those in Canada had lower overall use of head computed tomography (Canada, 22 942 [1.3%] vs the United States, 753 270 [3.5%]; P < .001), abdomen computed tomography (5626 [0.3%] vs 211 018 [1.0%]; P < .001), chest radiographic imaging (208 843 [11.7%] vs 3 408 540 [15.6%]; P < .001), and abdominal radiographic imaging (77 147 [4.3%] vs 3 607 141 [16.5%]; P < .001). Low-value imaging use was lower in Canada than the United States for multiple indications, including abdominal radiographic images for constipation (absolute difference, 23.7% [95% CI, 23.2%-24.3%]) and abdominal pain (20.6% [95% CI, 20.3%-21.0%]) and head computed tomographic scans for concussion (22.9% [95% CI, 22.3%-23.4%]). Abdominal computed tomographic use for constipation and abdominal pain, although low overall, were approximately 10-fold higher in the United States (0.1% [95% CI, 0.1%-0.2%] vs 1.2% [95% CI, 1.2%-1.2%]) and abdominal pain (0.8% [95% CI, 0.7%-0.9%] vs 7.0% [95% CI, 6.9%-7.1%]). Rates of 3-day and 7-day post-ED adverse outcomes were similar.

Conclusions and Relevance

Low-value imaging rates were lower in pediatric EDs in Ontario compared with the United States, particularly those involving ionizing radiation. Lower use of imaging in Canada was not associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes, suggesting that usage may be safely reduced in the United States.

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Monitoring Progress of Neurological and Functional Outcomes in the Paediatric HIV Cohort in the UK

Guideline from the Children’s HIV Association

This document aims to summarise the current understanding of neurological and functional outcomes for children living with HIV and provide recommendations for screening and monitoring, as well as the process for deciding when to refer for or carry out additional assessments.
This guideline gives a summary of some of the literature relating to the neurological and
functioning outcomes of children and young people living with HIV. It is aimed at
multidisciplinary clinicians working in HIV services around screening for difficulties in these areas. It gives guidance on significant time points to assess, an example screening proforma, a list of potential assessments to undertake and the actions to take if needs are identified. It also gives two case examples. Assessing and reviewing neurological and functioning outcomes continues to be a priority.

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Head ultrasound, CT or MRI? The choice of neuroimaging in the assessment of infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection

BMC Pediatrics

Background

Despite growing interest in universal screening for congenital CMV infection (cCMV), and data to support treatment for cases with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, there is limited regarding the optimal imaging modalities to identify CNS involvement. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between head ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), in identifying neurological abnormalities in infants with cCMV infection, and to determine whether the addition of advanced neuroimaging after US had an impact on clinical management.

Methods

Retrospective review of infants with cCMV infection, referred to the Centre d’Infectiologie Mère-Enfant (CIME) at Sainte-Justine Hospital Center in Montreal, between 2008 and 2016. Only patients who underwent head US followed by and brain MRI or CT scan were included in this analysis.

Results

Of 46 cases of cCMV identified during the study period, 34 (74%) had a head US followed by MRI (n = 28, 61%), or CT scan (n = 6, 13%). In the majority of cases (n = 24, 71%), both images were concordant (11 both reported abnormal, 13 both reported normal). In 5 cases, US was reported normal and subsequent imaging (MRI = 4, CT = 1); reported abnormal. In all 5 cases patients were clinically symptomatic and met treatment criteria even in the absence of neuroimaging findings. In 5 cases, US was reported abnormal with a subsequent normal MRI (4) or CT (1); in 2 of these cases, patients were clinically symptomatic and met treatment criteria regardless of neuroimaging findings. However, in 3 cases, the patients were clinically asymptomatic, and in 2 of these cases, treated based only on the abnormal US findings.

Conclusions

In this study, we found that that sequential US and MRI were concordant in the majority (71%) of cases in detecting abnormalities potentially associated with cCMV infection. While the addition of MRI to baseline head ultrasound did not influence the decision to treat in clinically symptomatic infants, the addition of MRI to infants with abnormal HUS imaging who are clinically asymptomatic could help refine treatment decisions in these cases.

 

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Thrombophlebitis hiding under a KILT – case report on 40 years long-term follow-up of neonatal renal vein thrombosis

Background

Neonatal renal vein thrombosis is a recognised cause of renal and inferior caval vein atresia (IVCA). However, the long-term impact of the condition is underrecognized with a high burden of morbidity for the patient, especially in adulthood. IVCA has been shown to be an independent risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) with a high risk of recurrence. The acronym KILT for kidney and inferior vena cava anomaly with leg thrombosis summarizes the pathological situation.

Case presentation

We present the case of a 40-year-old patient with pain in the right lower limb resulting from acute thrombophlebitis. No risk factors could be identified. His history was remarkable with two episodes of deep venous thrombosis first of the left, then the right leg 22 years earlier; at that time also, no risk factor was identified. Because of the idiopathic character of that thrombosis, the patient remained on long-term anticoagulation with phenprocoumon. The present thrombophlebitis occurred while the INR was not therapeutic in the preceding weeks. A CT with contrast showed atresia of the inferior vena cava and of the right kidney, and presence of numerous collaterals. A thorough medical history revealed a renal vein thrombosis as a neonate. Anticoagulation was intensified, and stent placement became necessary after a further 2 years.

Discussion and conclusions

KILT syndrome is a rare but underrecognized condition. Complications may arise in young adulthood only, and it is of prime importance to instruct parents of the pediatric patient of the possible consequences of renal vein thrombosis and to assure guidance from the treating physicians throughout adulthood. Diagnosis of IVCA is by CT with contrast or by MRI, and lifelong anticoagulation may be necessary. Since the KILT syndrome is widely underdiagnosed, we challenge the clinicians to keep it in mind when confronted with thrombophlebitis or thrombosis of the young, male and with no other identifiable risk factors for deep vein thrombosis.

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Paediatrician’s perspective of infant gut microbiome research: current status and challenges

Ryan PMStanton CRoss RP, et al

 

Abstract

Due to its innately intriguing nature and recent genomic technological advances, gut microbiome research has been at the epicentre of medical research for over a decade now. Despite the degree of publicisation, a comprehensive understanding and, therefore, acceptance of the area as a whole may be somewhat lacking within the broader medical community. This paper summarises the main analytical techniques and tools currently applied to compositional microbiome research. In addition, we outline five major lessons learnt from a decade of infant microbiome research, along with the current research gaps. Finally, we aim to provide an introduction and general guidelines relating to infant gut microbiome research for the practising paediatrician.

Link to article here

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Can real-time feedback improve the simulated infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of basic life support and lay rescuers?

Kandasamy JTheobald PSMaconochie IK, et al

Background Performing high-quality chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requires achieving of a target depth, release force, rate and duty cycle.

 

Objective This study evaluates whether ‘real time’ feedback could improve infant CPR performance in basic life support-trained (BLS) and lay rescuers. It also investigates whether delivering rescue breaths hinders performing high-quality chest compressions. Also, this study reports raw data from the two methods used to calculate duty cycle performance.

 

Methodology BLS (n=28) and lay (n=38) rescuers were randomly allocated to respective ‘feedback’ or ‘no-feedback’ groups, to perform two-thumb chest compressions on an instrumented infant manikin. Chest compression performance was then investigated across three compression algorithms (compression only; five rescue breaths then compression only; five rescue breaths then 15:2 compressions). Two different routes to calculate duty cycle were also investigated, due to conflicting instruction in the literature.

 

Results No-feedback BLS and lay groups demonstrated <3% compliance against each performance target. The feedback rescuers produced 20-fold and 10-fold increases in BLS and lay cohorts, respectively, achieving all targets concurrently in >60% and >25% of all chest compressions, across all three algorithms. Performing rescue breaths did not impede chest compression quality.

 

Conclusions A feedback system has great potential to improve infant CPR performance, especially in cohorts that have an underlying understanding of the technique. The addition of rescue breaths—a potential distraction—did not negatively influence chest compression quality. Duty cycle performance depended on the calculation method, meaning there is an urgent requirement to agree a single measure.

 

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