Significant predictive factors of the severity and outcomes of the first attack of acute angioedema in children

BMC Pediatrics volume 19, Article number: 423 (2019)

Abstract

Background

The initial episode of angioedema in children can be potential life-threatening due to the lack of prompt identification and treatment. We aimed to analyze the factors predicting the severity and outcomes of the first attack of acute angioedema in children.

Methods

This was a retrospective study with 406 children (< 18 years) who presented in the emergency department (ED) with an initial episode of acute angioedema and who had subsequent follow-up visits in the out-patient department from January 2008 to December 2014. The severity of the acute angioedema was categorized as severe (requiring hospital admission), moderate (requiring a stay in the short-term pediatric observation unit [POU]), or mild (discharged directly from the ED). The associations among the disease severity, patient demographics and clinical presentation were analyzed.

Result

In total, 109 (26.8%) children had severe angioedema, and the majority of those children were male (65.1%). Most of the children were of preschool age (56.4%), and only 6.4% were adolescents. The co-occurrence of pyrexia or urticaria, etiologies of the angioedema related to medications or infections, the presence of respiratory symptoms, and a history of allergies (asthma, allergic rhinitis) were predictors of severe angioedema (all p < 0.05). Finally, the duration of angioedema was significantly shorter in children who had received short-term POU treatment (2.1 ± 1.1 days) than in those who discharged from ED directly (2.3 ± 1.4 days) and admitted to the hospital (3.5 ± 2.0 days) (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

The co-occurrence of pyrexia or urticaria, etiologies related to medications or infections, the presence of respiratory symptoms, and a history of allergies were predictors of severe angioedema. More importantly, short-term POU observation and prompt treatment might be benefit for patients who did not require hospital admission.

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Randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve parental knowledge and management practices of fever

243105152_cf1d7ab444_c flickr.com
Image: Flickr.com

BMC Pediatrics volume 19, Article number: 447 (2019)

Abstract

Background

We know that parents require resources which can assist them to improve fever knowledge and management practices. The purpose of this study, using an RCT, was to examine the effectiveness of an information leaflet at increasing parental knowledge of fever, specifically temperature definition.

Methods

A prospective, multi-centre, randomised, two-parallel arm, controlled trial with blinded outcome ascertainment was conducted. Parents presenting at purposively selected healthcare facilities who had a child aged ≤5 years of age were invited to participate. An information leaflet for use in the trial was designed based on previous studies with parents. Parents in the intervention arm read an information leaflet on fever and management of fever in children, completed a short questionnaire at Time 1 (T1) and again 2 weeks after randomisation at Time 2 (T2). Parents in the control arm did not receive the fever information leaflet but completed the same questionnaire as the intervention arm at T1 and againat T2. The primary outcome was the correct definition of fever (higher than ≥38 °C).

Results

A total of 100 parents participated in the study at T1. A greater proportion of the intervention group (76%) than the control group (28%) selected the correct temperature (≥38 °C) at T1. 76% of the intervention arm correctly identified “higher than ≥38°C” as the temperature at which a fever is said to be present compared to 28% of the control arm. After 2 weeks, there was an increase of 6% of parents in the intervention arm (increase to 82.4%) who gave the correct temperature compared to just a 2.8% increase in the control arm (increase to 30.8%). Univariate logistic regression showed that parents in the intervention arm were significantly more likely to give the correct answer at both time-points (T1: OR 8.1; CI 95% 3.3–19.9: p < 0.01; T2: OR 10.5; CI 95% 3.4–32.0: p < 0.01).

Conclusions

Our RCT of this simple educational intervention has been shown to improve parental understanding of fever knowledge and correct management strategies. Education interventions providing simple, clear information is a key step to decreasing parental mismanagement of fever and febrile illness in children.

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How can we meet the health needs of child refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants?

Syrian_Refugee_Child_in_Istanbul Wikimedia Commons
Image: Wikimedia Commons

Abstract

The numbers of people forcibly displaced from their homes because of conflict, persecution, natural disasters and famine is increasing globally, reaching 68.5 million at the end of 2017. Over half of the world’s refugees are children. Child refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are exposed to multiple risk factors for poor physical and mental health throughout their migration experience. International treaties and national legislation recognise child migrants’ ‘right to health’ and equitable access to healthcare, yet restrictive immigration policies, health system challenges and service provider barriers to care impede translation into practice. This review explores how the experiences of child refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in England impacts on their health and presents recommendations as to how their health needs can be met.

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Accelerating diagnosis for childhood brain tumours: an analysis of the HeadSmart UK population data

Abstract

Background HeadSmart, a public and professional awareness campaign, was launched to enhance awareness of brain tumour symptomatology identified in the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence–accredited guideline. Quality improvement data showed a reduction in diagnostic interval nationally. To reach the government target of 4 weeks, we need to identify subgroups with ongoing delays.

 

Methods Incident cases of brain tumours (0–18) diagnosed between January 2011 and May 2013 across 18 UK centres were included. Anonymised data including demographics, diagnosis and date of symptom onset/presentation were collected. Key outcome measures, total diagnostic interval (TDI), patient interval (PI) and system interval (SI) were calculated. Subanalysis by age, tumour grade and location was also performed.

 

Results Young children (0–5 years) accounted for 38% of cases, with a peak age at diagnosis of 2 years. Central tumours experienced longest intervals with a median TDI of 10.5 weeks, PI of 3.2 weeks and SI of 2.9 weeks. Craniopharyngioma, low-grade glioma and optic pathway gliomas had the longest TDIs with a median of 15.1, 11.9 and 10.4 weeks, respectively. The greatest proportion of delay was in the SI. The 12–18 age group had a median TDI of 12.1 weeks, compared with 8 weeks for the 5–11 age group and 6 weeks for the 0–5 age group (p<0.001).

 

Conclusions Clear patterns of intervals for different age groups and anatomical locations have been demonstrated. Tailoring education and awareness strategies to ensure earlier diagnosis for central tumours and young people is crucial to minimise brain injury, subsequent disability and late effects of treatment for 70% of survivors.

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Initiatives to reduce treatments in bronchiolitis in the emergency department and primary care

Abstract

We performed a quality improvement initiative to reduce unnecessary treatments for acute bronchiolitis (AB) in primary care (PC) and the referral paediatric emergency department (ED). The quality improvement initiative involved two seasons: 2016–2017 (preintervention) and 2017–2018 (postintervention). We distributed an evidence-based protocol, informative posters and badges with the slogan ‘Bronchiolitis, less is more’. We also held interactive sessions, and paediatricians received weekly reports on bronchodilator prescription. The main outcome was the percentage of infants prescribed salbutamol. Secondary outcomes were epinephrine, antibiotic and corticosteroid prescription rates. Control measures were ED visit and hospitalisation rates, triage level, length of stay, intensive care admission and unscheduled returns with admission. We included 1878 ED and 1192 PC visits of which 855 (44.5%) and 534 (44.7%) occurred in the postintervention period, respectively. In the ED, salbutamol and epinephrine prescription rates fell from 13.8% (95% CI 11.8% to 16%) to 9.1% (95% CI 7.3% to 11.2%) (p<0.01) and 10.4% (95% CI 8.6% to 12.4%) to 9% (95% CI 7.2% to 11.1%) (n.s.), respectively. In PC, salbutamol, corticosteroid and antibiotic prescription rates fell from 38.3% (95% CI 34.6% to 42.0%) to 15.9% (95% CI 12.9% to 19.5%) (p<0.01), 12.9% (95% CI 10.5% to 15.7%) to 3.6% (95% CI 2.2% to 5.7%) (p<0.01) and 29.6% (95% CI 26.2% to 33.2%) to 9.5% (95% CI 7.2% to 12.5%) (p<0.01), respectively. No significant variations were noted in control measures. We safely decreased the use of unnecessary treatments for AB. Collaboration between PC and ED appears to be an important factor for success.

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Daily life participation in childhood chronic disease: a qualitative study

Nap-van der Vlist MMKars MCBerkelbach van der Sprenkel EE, et al

Abstract

Objective Opportunities to participate in daily life have improved considerably for children with chronic disease. Nevertheless, they still face challenges associated with their ever-present illness affecting every aspect of their lives. To best help these children, we aimed to assess the child’s own perspective on participation and the main considerations that affect participation in a stable phase of disease.

 

Methods Qualitative study design was applied. Semistructured, indepth interviews were conducted and analysed by a general inductive approach using constant comparison, coding and categorisation. Children 8–18 years old with a chronic disease were recruited from a cohort study involving cystic fibrosis, autoimmune disease and post-treatment paediatric cancer.

 

Results 31 of the 56 (55%) invited patients participated. From the perspective of children with chronic disease, participation is considered more than merely engaging in activities; rather, they view having a sense of belonging, the ability to affect social interactions and the capacity to keep up with peers as key elements of full participation. Some children typically placed a higher priority on participation, whereas other children typically placed a higher priority on their current and/or future needs, both weighing the costs and benefits of their choices and using disclosure as a strategy.

 

Conclusions Enabling full participation from the child’s perspective will help realise patient-centred care, ultimately helping children self-manage their participation. Caregivers can stimulate this participation by evaluating with children how to achieve a sense of belonging, active involvement and a role within a peer group. This requires active collaboration between children, healthcare providers and caregivers.

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Pain and Sedation Scales for Neonatal and Pediatric Patients in a Preverbal Stage of Development A Systematic Review

JAMA Pediatr. Published online October 14, 2019

Key Points:

Question  Which are the best validated scales to assess pain and sedation among children in a preverbal stage of development?

Findings  This systematic review evaluated 65 scales that have been used for assessing pain or sedation in preterm infants, term infants, or toddlers. Only 28 of 65 scales (43%) had been tested for construct validity, internal consistency, and interrater reliability.

Meaning  Clinicians should consider using well-validated scales when assessing pain or sedation in their target population; construct validity, internal consistency, and interrater reliability are prerequisites all such scales should provide.

Importance  Because children in a preverbal stage of development are unable to voice their feelings, they completely depend on their caregiving team for the interpretation and management of their pain and discomfort. Thus, accurately validated scales to assess pain and sedation levels are crucial.

Objective  To provide clinicians a complete overview on the validity and reliability of the existing pain and sedation scales for different target populations (preterm infants, term infants, and toddlers) and in different clinical contexts.

Evidence Review  BIOSIS Previews, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycCRITIQUES, PsycINFO, PSYNDEXplus Literature and Audiovisual Media, and PSYNDEXplus Tests were the databases screened from their inception to August 2018. All studies examining the validity or reliability of a given pain or sedation scale for patients in a preverbal stage of development were included in this systematic review. Those scales that were tested for at least construct validity, internal consistency, and interrater reliability were subsequently scored using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist.

Findings  In total, 89 validation articles comprising 65 scales were included. Fifty-seven scales (88%) were useful for assessing pain, 13 scales (20%) for assessing sedation, and 4 scales (6%) for assessing both conditions. Forty-two (65%) were behavioral scales, and 23 (35%) were multidimensional scales. Eleven scales (17%) were validated for infants on mechanical ventilation. Thirty-seven scales (57%) were validated for preterm infants, 24 scales (37%) for term and preterm infants, 7 scales (11%) for term-born children, 7 scales (11%) for preterm infants, term infants, and toddlers, and 17 scales (26%) for term infants and toddlers. Twenty-eight scales (43%) considered construct validity, internal consistency, and interrater reliability.

Conclusions and Relevance  Clinicians should consider using scales that are validated for at least construct validity, internal consistency, and interrater reliability, combining this information with the population of interest and the construct the scale is intended to measure.

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